If you are familiar with Online-Convert.com’s free image converter, you have also already noticed the optional settings provided when converting your image. Next to converting your picture or photo into another format, you can use these options for some basic image editing.
But what are these options good for?
This is the question we will answer for you today! There is a set of optional settings you can use when converting your image to JPG, TIFF, WEBP or even animated GIF. The options are all the same, except for ICO which we will have a look at at the end of the article as well.
Optional Settings For Image Conversion
These are the optional settings you can choose from when using one of the Online-Convert.com image converters. Lets go through them one after the other. Of course, we will also provide you with visuals to see the difference between single options!
Rather self-explanatory, this option changes the size of the target file. The format is the following: width x height
Entering one value, either for width or height, will proportionally change the other value as well. This way, the dimension of the image will stay the same.
Setting both values will cause the image to be scaled to fit them both. The resulting image will be distorted according to the values set:
Color, just like the name suggests, changes the colors of the uploaded image. There are six predefined options to choose from: Colored, Gray, Monochrome, Negate, Year 1980 and Year 1900. Only one of the options can be chosen.
In this case, a picture tell you more than words can, thus here’s an overview of what the different color options do to your picture:
The options given under enhance will add to the image quality. There are, again, six options to choose from: Equalize, Normalize, Enhance, Sharpen, Antialias and Despeckle. Here, however, several options can be selected and thus the effects they have can be mixed.
DPI stands for “dots per inch” and in the image it denotes the amount of dots in a line with a size of one inch. There are a few common DPI values used for images, however, you can choose the number freely.
Making use of all these options provides you with some basic image editing options for your images. Lets have a look how an image with several options set will turn out:
Options For ICO Conversion
Last but not least, let’s have a look at the optional settings available for ICO conversions.
The only options available for ICO are “Change Size” and DPI. The reason for this is that ICO files are not typically used as normal image extensions. It’s rather a file format used to display programs, folders, etc. on a computer that runs with Microsoft Windows.
If you have looked into audio or video files a bit more in-depth, you surely stumbled over the term bit rate. When you are creating or converting video and audio files, the bit rate plays a crucial role when it comes to the audio quality of your respective voice recording, music piece, movie, or video clip. Thus, we at Online-Convert.com decided to wrap up some information that you should know about bit rate!
At the end of the article, you will also find two examples to listen to. Because, yes, bit rate does matter!
What Is Bit Rate?
Before we dive into the reasons why bit rate is important to consider when working with audio or video files, lets first have a look at what bit rate is.
Do not get confused as bit rate is a term used for general data transmission, e.g. in your internet connection, as well. It simply states how much data (bits) are transferred in a certain amount of time. This is also true for audio data contained in music, voice recording, or video files. However, what you should be interested in is what the bit rate affects in an audio file; namely quality.
It is comparable to the resolution of an image. The higher the bit rate, the better the quality of your audio or video file. For example, the sound of an MP3 file with a bit rate of 192 kbps will be much better and clearer as of a file that only uses 32 kbps. The image quality of a video is also dependent of the bit rate.
The reason of this is that more data is transmitted during playback when a higher bit rate was chosen. With a slower bit rate, naturally, less data is transferred. Thus, sound and image quality are reduced.
It is commonly measured using bits per second (bps), kilobits per second (kbps) or megabits per second (mbps).
Here, the rule of thumb is: The higher the bit rate the better the quality of an audio or video!
Can I Hear The Difference?
No we settled that the bit rate chosen changes the quality of our audio and video files. Yet, is this difference even noticeable? Can you hear the difference between different bit rates?
The simple answer is: yes; but when is something really easy? Of course the changes in quality are both audible and visible across different bit rates, however the difference between a low and high bit rate is naturally easier to find than between a high and even higher bit rate.
But listen to yourself! Below, you will find different MP3 files that were all converted to MP3 by the same method, but using a different bit rate.
Here’s the audible proof that you can hear the difference in bit rate throughout an audio file.
We have taken a WAV file (find it here) and converted it to MP3 using an online MP3 converter. During conversion, we applied no other changes than the bit rate. Play each file to see (or rather hear) if you can notice the difference.
The difference between the first and second track is striking. There was certainly a loss in quality when converting the original WAV file to a 32 kbps MP3. You surely wouldn’t want to listen to music with such a low bit rate.
Depending on the headphones or speakers you use, however, you will not hear a difference between the later two tracks. It seems like, quality-wise, recordings with 192 kbps sound just as good as 320 kbps. It is not only a matter of gear though, whether you hear the difference or not. Your ears may also play a role in this. Some people are unable to hear the difference in similar bit rates.
Which Bit Rate Should You Use?
So, does bit rate matter or not? When you listened to our examples, you can surely agree with us: yes, bit rate matters! The difference in quality, especially between low and high bit rates is undoubtedly there. However, you would have to be an audiophile with high end gear to hear differences in higher bit rates — or just naturally very good ears.
Thus, when ripping a CD or converting a lossless audio file to a lossy format, what bit rate should be used?
It’s assumed that 256 kbps is the most commonly used high-quality bit rate for audio files like MP3 or AAC. Lossless audio files usually have a bit rate between 400 and 1.411 kbps.
It differs quite a lot more when it comes to video files: YouTube allows for 6.8 mbps videos while 8 to 15 mbps are in the HDTV quality range. Videos on Blu-ray discs, for example, can have a maximum bit rate of 40 mbps.
For personal usage, there is another factor you should consider: file size. Take the three examples from above. If we compare the file size between these MP3 files we get the following results:
32 kbps — 144 KB
192 kbps — 848 KB
320 kbps — 1.37 MB
As expected, the file size increases the higher the bit rate is. Quality surely comes with a price. What does that mean for the casual music lover? Find the perfect balance between quality and file size. If you don’t hear much of a difference between the 192 kbps and 320 kbps file, you can easily grab the smaller file and put it onto your MP3 player or phone.
As a photographer, you are used to working with images in a so-called raw format. But even non-photographers may stumble upon Raw camera images—and have difficulties opening them. Most picture viewers are unable to open such camera raw images, making it impossible to view, print, or edit them.
But what are camera raw images even? Which cameras produce them? And what are they good for?
Online-Convert has the answers to these questions!
What Is A Camera Raw Image?
Camera raw images got their name because they are not processed and contain the “raw” data of the image as it is captured by the image sensor of a digital camera. Some image scanners can produce such raw files as well. The best way to understand what a raw image is is to think of the negatives in photography. These digital negatives can not be used directly, but they contain all information needed to create the image.
In addition to the image information, other information is stored in the raw files as well. Metadata captured by the camera sensor is stored within the raw image as well. This includes color profile, exposure, date, author information, and more.
Many digital cameras are able to take images in not only the common JPG format, but in a raw format as well—and they differ from model to model. Following, we have a little list with some of the better known camera raw files:
DNG (Adobe Raw)
As mentioned before, raw images are not as easily handled as common raster images. Special image editing software like Photoshop or specific raw image viewers are needed to open, view and edit the camera raw images. Yet, these raw formats still have various advantages over JPG and its brothers.
Raw image files contain many more shades of color than JPG files, and the quality of the images is noticeably higher as well thanks to the lossless compression of image data.
When it comes to editing, raw images provide many more parameters to adjust as are possible with other image files. When manipulating a raw image, e.g. in Photoshop, the information is stored in a separate file. Thus, the original raw image is not altered even when changes with regard to white balance, hue, saturation or others is applied.
However, no matter how versatile raw images may be when it comes to quality or editing parameters, there are some drawbacks when compared to other image formats.
Raw images are significantly bigger when it comes to the file size since they store a lot more information than a simple JPG image. They are not ready to use and require further editing and manipulation before they can be properly used or shared.
Furthermore, they are not widely supported and differ from camera to camera. Thus, not many people are able to open a camera raw image and struggle with getting to see the contents. Photoshop is not a free program. To use it properly, you have to purchase the license. But how else are you supposed to open a raw image then?
Convert Camera Raw Images
Image conversion software and their online variants are able to convert raw image data into JPG, TIFF, or other image formats that are ready for use and can be opened by all image viewing applications—no matter if on your computer, smartphone, tablet or other device!
On Online-Convert.com you can convert camera raw images to JPG with just a few clicks. Raw images from Nikon, Canon, Sony or other cameras are supported by the converter and you do not have to download any program or viewer to your computer to view the photos.
If you are using a Mac or any other Apple device like the iPhone or iPad, you surely have heard about the QuickTime media player or it’s corresponding app. Even when you are a Windows or Android user, it is possible for you to use QuickTime to watch videos or listen to music. It has been quite some time since QuickTime had been exclusively for Apple users.
However versatile and popular the media player may be though, there are still problems regarding certain file formats or codecs. QuickTime, even though it supports most video and audio files, has difficulties opening certain files. But don’t worry, there is still a way how to watch your favorite movie or listen to your favorite sing using the player you have!
Native QuickTime Files
There is one file format that is native to Apple’s QuickTime player: The MOV file.
MOV is a video container format similar to MP4. For QuickTime use one could even say that the two formats are nearly interchangeable even though MP4 is receiving better support by both hardware and software media players.
MOV files are, as stated, container files. This means that they do not only contain video data, but audio data as well. Text data can be included as well, for example for subtitle usage.
Files QuickTime Can Open
Depending on the video and audio codecs used, there is quite a bunch of files you can play, view and open using the QuickTime player. Newer versions of the media player can also edit, save, and share videos and other media formats.
Here’s a list with the most common formats supported by QuickTime:
3GP, 3GPP, 3G2
Play All Video & Audio Files
While QuickTime supports a lot of files, it may still happen that you are unable to open a video or song in the media player. In this case, the file either uses a codec that’s not supported by QuickTime, or the file is in a format that QuickTime does not support.
In that case, you can download add ons for QuickTime the allow you to, for example, play back ASF, Flash Video or OGG files. Or you can download and install another player that supports the file and codec you are using.
But what if you don’t want to download and install a new program just to open a single video? What if you are on mobile and want a quick and space-saving solution?
Convert your files to the QuickTime Format
Video files like FLV, MKV, WEBM or WMV can not be natively opened by QuickTime. If you still want to use QuickTime to view them though, you can convert them to MOV. By converting these files into the MOV format, you do not have to install any other application or program.
Likewise, audio files like FLAC, OGG, OPUS or WMA are not supported by Apple’s media player. For these files, you can either use iTunes or convert them into a format supported by QuickTime using an audio file converter as well.
Using online conversion you save time, space and nerves if you want to quickly convert a file for your QuickTime player. Don’t bother with downloading new players or even more apps to your phone: use what you already have!
Sharing the written word has never been as easy as in the online world. Contracts, books, letters, thoughts, poems, notes… Whatever you want to write down, you can easily spread, send and share it over the internet. This is fairly easy, because most people are able to open, view, read or even edit the documents you send them. However, since there are many different kinds of documents, there may be some complications as well.
Sometimes, it may be important to convert a document file into another format to be able to open it. Or, you may want to convert the document before sending and sharing it so your friends, clients, boss, co-workers, or people on the internet in general can easily access it. If so, you have to be careful in choosing the perfect file format for your purpose because document files differ from one another in many respects.
In this article, we will provide you with an overview of the most popular document files. That way, it should be easy for you to choose the perfect format to save, send or convert your documents in and to.
Popular Document File Extensions
DOC and DOCX
One of the most popular and common document formats is the native format of Microsoft Word. Documents written and created in Word are typically saved as either DOC or DOCX depending on the Microsoft Office version you are using.
DOC and DOCX files can contain text and rich formatting as well as tables, images, and other objects. This makes them a preferable file format for different purposes that require a flexible way of formatting a document. From invoices or contracts with specific fields, to reports and essays containing graphs and tables, DOC and DOCX files provide a great way to express thoughts, present findings, and provide information.
Both files are able to be edited further, either by the original author or by the receiver. Furthermore, many programs are able to open DOC and DOCX files depending on their version. However, in some programs the formatting may change or images and tables may be displayed differently.
ODT files are similar to DOC and DOCX files. Yet, while the latter ones are native to Microsoft Word, ODT files are distributed under the open standard license and are thus native to many different open source word processing programs like OpenOffice and Libre Office.
Documents with the ODT extension can contain rich formatting, OLE objects, tables, graphs and images as well. They are common among many people and can be used for many different purposes like contracts, essays, reports, letters, and more.
ODT files can be edited by the original author as well as any receiving member. The format is also supported by other, non-open source programs like Microsoft Word which makes them very versatile. However, formatting and the overall display can be shifted or otherwise differ from the original formatting when opened with software that did not create the document.
RTF is the file extension for Rich Text Format documents. It was developed by Microsoft as well, but can be created using almost every other word processing program like Microsoft’s NotePad or OpenOffice Writer.
RTF files can contain basic text formatting. However, no images, videos or other files can be implemented in the document, only text. Thus, the file is applicable for all needs that do not include images but formatted text only, like letters, contracts, or invoices. Like all aforementioned document files, RTF files can be further edited.
The file format is highly compatible with almost every word processing software and thus not only wide-spread in the web and among users, but also easily distributed and shared.
The best known and most compatible document type is the TXT document. TXT files contain raw text and can be created with any if not all word processing programs.
TXT files do neither contain formatting nor images or other objects. They are basic documents, developed to store text only. This makes them perfect for data storage or quick and easy information exchange—especially across platforms.
These raw text files can be opened by almost all programs like Microsoft Word, Pages for Mac, LibreOffice LaTex, and more. Of course, TXT files can be further edited as well.
PDF files were developed by Adobe and differ greatly from the document files mentioned above in several aspects. Next to formatted text, PDFs can contain images, graphs, tables, and even 3D drawings. Sometimes, they consist of images and scanned pages only instead of an underlying text file. Mixtures of both are possible as well.
PDF formats are perfect for printing since they preserve the formatting of the file they were created out of. Similar to an image, the PDF contains a fixed layout and always looks the same, no matter which program, software or device is used to open it. Next to the cost-free Adobe Reader, many programs are able to open PDF files. There are apps for mobile devices, and most browsers support opening PDF files as well. Furthermore, most word processing programs are able to export documents in the PDF format.
Unless using a program that specifically allows the modification of PDF files, they are protected from further editing. Furthermore, PDF files can be secured using a password or even encrypted.
The common distribution as well as the fact that everyone will see a PDF in the same way make it a perfect file format for spreading, sending and sharing documents.
HTM and HTML
HTM and HTML are abbreviations most commonly associated with web addresses. However, documents can also be saved in this format. Most word processing programs are able to save formatted text, containing images, audio and other objects in the HTML or HTM format. They can be opened with any web browser and are handled like real or true websites, completely with embedded media and outgoing links.
PPT and PPTX
Contrary to the file formats mentioned above, PPT and PPTX are known as presentation files rather than documents. They are native to the Microsoft PowerPoint program and can include images as well as text, graphs, animations, tables, slide transitions and embedded videos and audio files. It is the most common file used for different kinds of presentations among smaller or bigger groups of people.
The slideshows created using PowerPoint can be opened by other, open source programs as well. However, slide transitions, animations, and the overall formatting as well as the overall display may differ form the original one when PPT or PPTX files are opened in programs like Libre Office.
In July we have presented you the best free photo collage makers on the web. Today, we want to give you a little update. The reason for this is a big update one of the collage makers we presented has introduced that improves the handling as well as the possibilities to create photo cards, picture collages, and more!
Make Your Own Photo Collage And More!
To get started with the new and improved photo collage maker on FotoJet.com, choose the “creative Collage” maker on the left. It will immediately bring you to a more improved interface where you can choose your collage, photo card, or post style right away.
The most prominent new feature you see here is the possibility to not only create Facebook covers, but covers and banners for YouTube, Twitter, and Google+, as well as different social media posts for Pinterest, Instagram, and more.
Furthermore, you can create your own comic or magazine cover as well.
Start Editing—For Real!
Once you chose a category, you will find more templates available for your enjoyment as well as two blank templates (a landscape and a portray one). The blank ones are for the free spirits that want to create their design from scratch, but the already available layouts gained some improvements as well. To illustrate this, check out the wedding invitation we have created the last time (left), and the wedding thank you card we created with the newly available options (right):
Last time, we have stated that it’s a pity that the icons, patterns, and symbols can not be altered and that the text areas are rather rigid. This has been changed with the new improvements! As you can see, we were able to change the picture sizes, move the label and change it’s color, as well as move and enlarge the text areas. This offers a lot more freedom to re-arrange the collages and make them look even prettier for your purpose.
If you start your collage from scratch, it’s easy to drag and drop your images onto the blank canvas, change the size, and arrange them the way you want them to. With a double click, you can crop and adjust the image within the shape as well. The addition of different clip arts like banners, speech bubbles, icons, and texts enables you to decorate the collage according to the occasion. Of course, changing the background to either solid color or a pattern, as well as the possibility to add different styles of text are given. The only thing missing here, in our eyes, would be the possibility to add own images as clip art, and edit the texts to form arches or other forms.
However, with these options, FotoJet took another step forward to stand out as an online photo collage maker, adding new features and possibilities for the user to let the creative juices flow more freely. Look at this Halloween collage we created completely from scratch:
The only downside we still detect is that, even though you are able to create Pinterest and Instagram or Facebook images, you are still only able to share them on Facebook and no other Social Media network. Also, if you want to store your image in any other format than JPEG and PNG (e.g. WebP or TIFF), you would have to convert the collage.
Despite the stigma, PowerPoint, Keynote, or other slideshow presentations are still the number one go-to tool for public, educational, and business presentations. No matter if you are presenting on a large or smaller scale, presenting important graphs, keywords, and findings, using a slideshow program makes it easier for you to set up the presentation, and visually more appealing for your audience.
We are not here to tell you how to do or present your findings, but we can help you with a very valid question when it comes to Microsoft’s PowerPoint: What kind of media can I add to my PowerPoint and Keynote slides?
Adding Videos and Audio Files to PowerPoint
While images and graphs, tables and charts add great visual content to your slides, they do not cover the whole spectrum of possibilities. If a video can underline your point or show your findings, you should also present it in your slideshow. For this, you do not have to fiddle with pausing and closing your presentation to open a media player.
Likewise, you can add audio samples and recordings to your presentation without having to click around a lot and let your audience wait.
However, not all media files are supported by Microsoft’s PowerPoint or Apple’s Keynote programs. To get an overview, we have dived into the specifications of each program and gathered information about the files you can add to your presentation.
Following, you will find a list of video files that are supported by Microsoft PowerPoint or Keynote for both Mac and iOS. However, some replaying problems may still occur if the video file is using an unsupported codec. Thus, make sure that you check the presentation beforehand whether the correctly implemented video file can indeed be replayed without problems.
It’s recommended to use MP4 video files, using the h.264 video codec and the AAC audio codec.
Generally, all formats natively supported by QuickTime can be used for implementation into Keynote presentation.
With regard to Audio files, the codecs used for encoding the audio file plays a role in proper playback as well. Make sure to use a widely used and supported codec, and audio playback in your presentation shouldn’t pose a problem.
It’s recommended to use M4A files that have been encoded using the AAC audio codec.
Audio formats that are supported by QuickTime can, usually, be used in Keynote presentations.
The information above are valid for the programs of the following versions:
Microsoft PowerPoint 2013 & Powerpoint 2016
Keynote for Mac (6.0 and later) & Keynote for iOS (2.0 and later)
If you want ti implement a video or audio file that is not supported by either program, do not fret! You can still use a versatile online audio converter to convert your recording or other audio file into a supported format. Likewise, a video converter helps you to convert videos into a format you can implement into your presentation.
YouTube may be the number one video community, however there are several other alternatives out there where you can watch videos – and upload your own! In an earlier article, we already talked about how videos should and can be optimized to be uploaded to Vimeo. Another video platform that could be interesting for users that either do not trust YouTube or seek to upload content that may be blocked by YouTube in other countries can trustfully turn to Dailymotion!
Dailymotion is a video platform that allows users to watch videos or upload their own. Furthermore, they offer live streaming and even have an own area on the website explicitly for gaming videos and live streams.
However, there are a few things you have to keep in mind when uploading a video to Dailymotion – apart from following the terms of usage with regard to prohibited content.
Video File Formats, Size, Codecs, and more
Video File Formats
Dailymotion is, in comparison to other video platforms, rather exclusive when it comes to the file format you can upload.
Video files come in many formats. They differ depending on the device you used to record them, the programs you used to edit them in, or the way you converted them for sending or storing them on your hard drive. Only few of them are supported by Dailymotion:
When trying to upload a video in another format, encoding errors can occur.
Video and Audio Codecs
No matter what format you use for your video file, it must be encoded in a way that Dailymotion can handle the file. Following is a list with the supported video codecs:
For best quality, it is recommended to use the H.264 video codec.
Likewise, the audio codec used for the audio data in the video plays a role in whether Dailymotion will be able to upload the video without a problem. The recommended audio codec to use is AAC, however the following codecs are supported as well:
MPEG Layer 2
Video Size and Resolution
The maximum file size for uploads to Dailymotion is 2 GB and the videos can not be longer than 60 minutes.
The screen resolutions supported by the platform range from standard definition to high definition with different aspect ratios possible.
640 x 480
840 x 480
1280 x 720
1920 x 1080
3840 x 2160
Frame Rates and Bitrate
Two other aspects to keep in mind when optimizing your video are frame rate and bitrate, the latter for both audio and video data.
The recommended frame rate for Dailymotion videos is 25 frames per second, however 24 FPS and 30 FPS are supported as well.
When it comes to bitrate, the one of the video should be between 1.2 and 4 Mbps. The audio should have a bitrate between 128 and 320 Kbps.
Using the right program makes it fairly easy to optimize your video for the usage on Dailymotion. If you don’t want to download and install a program, however, you can use an online video converter that supports video optimization as well.
There’s a saying which goes “The Best things in life are free”. However, when it comes to downloading free files from the internet, that is not always the case. We have put together a list of tips to follow whenever you are downloading anything from sites on the web. These tips will help to make sure you avoid infecting your computer, laptop, mobile device or tablet with a virus as well as assist you in protecting your personal data from hackers.
The internet is one of the greatest tools available to the us in the past few decades. It helps to connect Billions of people from all over the world via social media, websites, chats and other platforms.
Virus Affecting Dangers
Still, behind every good thing, there are also countless of bad alternatives which can pop up. There are millions of great sites out there on the web dedicated to helping people and making their lives easier. Sites such as Google for searching, Facebook for connecting with people you know and Online-Convert to help you convert any files you may have. However, there are also countless of people and sites whose whole purpose is to steal and rob users of their personal information. Some hackers simply enjoy being able to destroy your computer via a virus or trojan. These hackers attack people looking for FREE programs, files, movies, music and anything else you do not want or cannot afford to pay for. This means that if you are looking for a free music file, torrent, movie or program you need to be aware of the dangers.
Be Careful When Downloading Free Files!
First of all, never ever download any free files to your computer, mobile phone or tablet if you do not have an antivirus, firewall or web protection tool installed on them. Most internet security programs can detect dangerous sites before you even begin to download a file which is pretty awesome since they stop it before it even begins. In the event that you do download a file from the internet, be sure to scan it first before opening it using antivirus programs. If you cannot afford an internet security program, there are several out there which offer free trials and even limited free versions of their great internet security tools. E.g. Avast Internet Security For Free
When installing a file you downloaded for free from the internet, always be sure to look out for added toolbars and other PUP (Potentially Unwanted Programs) which may be part of the reason the file is free in the first place. Many of these bundled free toolbars end up infecting your device, hijacking it and even installing other software you do not need or want. Be sure to press advanced options before installation and uncheck any unwanted add ons you do not want or need. Most of these PUP are nearly impossible to remove once you install them so be very careful.
If you are suspicious about downloading different programs from the web, you can also search further for online solutions for your needs. This will prevent you from downloading and installing a possibly infected program.
Take Online-Convert.com for example: Instead of downloading a program that could potentially harm your computer, all you will save on your computer in the end is the securely converted file.
Lastly, check the ratings of the sites you are downloading from. There are various websites dedicated to showcasing troubled and dangerous P2P sites.
If you follow these tips on the dangers of downloading free files from the internet, you should be on the safe side and your surfing experience can be a great one. Unfortunately, 100% security can never be fully guaranteed, but you can still avoid the most common and dangerous mistakes.
Nowadays it is easy to carry your documents around without having to print them on paper. You can read them from everywhere, share them online or via email, and distribute them to a wide variety of people. Same goes for books that can be published easier and faster thanks to the growing e-book popularity.
For each purpose, there seems to be a dominant file format most people use to save, store, distribute, share, send, and download their documents and books in. The most common ones (if no further editing of the documents or manuscripts is needed) are PDF and EPUB. Both formats are supported by many mobile device, either natively or via cost-free apps. But what are the differences between those too? And which format should I choose for myself? Lets find out.
PDF vs. EPUB
Before we concentrate on the differences, lets have a look at the similarities of the two formats.
Both can contain text as well as images, complex formatting, and even clickable links (depending on the device you open them with).